USAID Development Grants: Opportunity for Local NGOs

Date: 15 August 2013

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has announced a new grant opportunity called the Development Grants Program which offers funding to local NGOs (as well as US-based organizations) to implement projects that foster sustainable grassroots development through the support of local development initiatives and capacity strengthening of these organizations.

This program recognizes the fact that “a vibrant and active NGO sector is fundamental to promoting a healthy civil society that is accountable and responsive to citizens’ needs.

USAID established this program to increase the number and quality of local NGOs (and US organizations) who can meet the needs of the communities they serve and contribute to the objectives of the Agency. The program is closely aligned with Agency initiatives to strengthen and sustain civil society by improving capacities of the organizations to address today’s development challenges and priorities.

USAID has earmarked a budget of up to $45 million in funding. A substantial portion of it will support activities that strengthen the organizational and technical capacity of the organizations.

To apply for this opportunity, applicants have to follow a two step process. In the Step 1, only a concept note has to be submitted. Selected applicants will be requested for the full application after review of concept notes.

Below is the list of countries and sectors for which proposals can be submitted:

USAID Development Grants Program

USAID Development Grants Program

The deadline for the submission concept notes is 15 August 2013. For more information, visit this link or search by Funding Opportunity Number for ‘RFA-OAA-13-000020’ at


  1. Been trying to forward concept in vain, is it deadline already?

  2. Philomena Mwirigi says:

    To whom it may concern,
    We are information technology empowerment centre (ICTEC)
    I am very sorry, but we could not find an email address to which we could direct the concept note.
    we would be very grateful, if you could help with the contact.

  3. Giulio Marino says:

    Dear Sir/Madam

    We at umbeleko.npc would like to email our comcept note, However, we cannot find the link to send it to!?
    Could you please kindly assist us?

    Many thanks

    Giulio Marino: Director at Umbeleko.npc

  4. Joyce William Wani says:

    Ligi girls Development Organization is a newly formed organization based in Juba, the capital city of South Sudan. One of its objectives is to sensitize the communities in South Sudan to know the importance of girls’ education and the effects of early marriages. Since South Sudan is a nealy born country, most of the girls are just forced to marriage. We kindly request your directives for writing the concept note and how to submit..
    We look forward to hearing from you.
    Joyce Willam

    Ligi girsl Development Organization.


  5. Cornel Onyango says:

    Our organization Care for AIDS exist transform and empower people living with HIV and AIDS, we are seeking to expand to other regions and other countries. Kindly advice us on how we can access your funding. Visit our website

  6. Marianna says:

    Hello Sir / Madam,

    I am very sorry, but I could not find an email address to which I should direct the concept note.
    I would be very greatful, if you help me.

    Kind regards,

  7. Odongkara Billy Brian says:

    Hello Sir / Madam,

    I have failed to identify an email address and person to which we should direct our concept notes.

    Kind regards,


    • Marianna Karapetyan says:

      I am very sorry, but I also did not find the contact to whom I should refer the concept note. Can you help me?

  8. Wesley Opoka says:

    Walokokwo Suport Organisation (WASO) is a community based organisation operating in Gulu and Amuru Districts in Acholi Sub region in Northern Uganda.WASO works with the communities to contribute to the reduction of HIV and AIDS through awareness creation,advocacy, and integrating Eradication of mother to child transmission through its gender based violence programmes which is a cross cutting issue.WASO also supports vulnerable children,youth,adult and the young positives club to continue living positively and pass on the key messages.We are interested in applying for the grant and looking forward to receiving more key information about the grant.

  9. Lucy Baraza says:

    Writing from Kenya, kindly provide us with the contacts to submit the concept note.

  10. Solomon Adiyo says:

    Hi everybody,
    Thank you for being in the struggle for humanity. Children of Hope Uganda strives to bring hope to victims of Joseph Kony”s LRA by paying School Fees to twelve formerly abducted Aboke Girls, awareness creation on HIV/AIDS, operate Barlonyo Technical and Vocational Institute-built to cater for survivors of Barlonyo massacre where over 300 human beings were slaughtered in cold blood by LRA, provides income generating activities to communities of Northern Uganda, provides micro finanace to rural poor at lowest rate possible etc.
    I have just got the information and wants to apply for these cause.
    Thank you for your concern.
    Solomon Adiyo..

  11. Hope am not late to applied for my organisation Women Advancement and Child Care WACC a CBO in the Gambia

  12. malabe james says:

    our organization that takes care of women, children, youths. we are really doing our best but no funding. how can we get the application form

  13. Deborah GirlsTraining Center says:

    We have an NGO/CBO in Gulu, northerrn Uganda which basically carters for young child mothers and disadvantaged young women who have no source of incomeand often prostitue themselves to earn a living from the truck drivers enroute to Sothern Sudan (Juba).
    Where do we submit our concept paper as we urgently need finacial support to enbale us equip the Center with training skills in various skills such as brick laying, motor vehcile mehanics, catering, metal frabication, etc.
    We look forward to hearing from you.
    Charles Okumu
    Chair, BOARD OF trustee

  14. Flourian protase says:

    is ango serving disabled people in Tanzania eligible for this fund? and if yes can you send me the format so that i can work for this at this few remaining time? with regads

  15. save the youths foundation says:

    we train young girls between- 13yrs-18yrs -who get pulled out of school for marriage in cooking skills and tailoring in northern nigeria.
    to enhance them while in marriage. we whole like to apply. please to which address do we mail our concept note?

  16. lineo mokoko says:

    how do we apply? are there application forms or do we just submit a text in any format? and if so where do we submit?

  17. Hello Sir,
    Education in Pakistan is in bad shape and, with the growth of the population these last decades, the problem is getting out of hands.

    Support to independent learning aims at creating self-supported small schools which will carry on their work under their own means.

    We want funds to develop the poor lower caste girls and boys to get education properly.
    We would like to welcome new ideas in education and your support would be highly appreciated.

    Note: There is no Electrical Generator/Air conditions/ Problems in Bathrooms/Desk for Children.

    Note: if you needs more information,s please contact me on my e-mail address.i can send the video and pictures also of Iqra Model School.

    Registered from Government of Pakistan.

    Best Regards,

  18. Vasif Shinwari says:

    Is Pakistan Included among the countries? If yes, then can you please send the format.


    l wish to apply but my country was excluded (Nigeria) why.

  20. Marlon Moore says:

    I would very much like to apply for FON RFA-OAA-13-000020; thus, do NGO’s in Jamaica have to follow the registration process outlined in even if prior submissions were done with your agency? This is very critical considering the deadline is two weeks away and the process can take longer.


  21. stanleymshana says:

    For tanzania you mentioned local and Regional partners of USAID. do you mean you have already established partners, or the applicants are your partners. Respond so that I do not apply if not among them

  22. isaac elakuna says:

    dear sir/madam,
    am writing from Uganda Society for Disabled Children an NGO in Uganda, we have picked interest in applying for this grant under the sector of provision of Capacity Development Services for Local and Regional Partners of USAID
    in this I am inquiring if this grant is basically meant to directly support the organization or to support the project that aims at helping like disabled persons in capacity development
    i thank you
    Isaac Elakuna

  23. isaac elakuna says:

    dear sir/madam,
    am writing from Uganda Society for Disabled Children an NGO in Uganda, we have picked interest in applying for this grant under the sector of provision of Capacity Development Services for Local and Regional Partners of USAID
    in this I am inquiring if this grant is basically meant to directly support the organization or to support the project that aims at helping like disabled persons in capacity development

  24. Bile macruf says:

    Hi i am the chairman of newly formed cbo operating in northern kenya to empower the marginalised pastoral communities to improve the living standards.we need the fund the to capacity build our board members & to acquire vital tools like computers and other necessary office furniture.kindly lets know if we can apply,thanks

  25. Rev. Arinze says:

    HI you should include Nigerian NGOs mostly the one that has implements USAID project before to apply with their DUNS No.

  26. tuligenda isaac says:

    students empowering students is to ensure the right of young people mostly the students to live free from violence and HIV/aids through peer education and community mobilization in the islands of buvuma district in Uganda.we are also registered cbo working on the district level .so we need you support.

  27. Wanaharakati Jaboya Bugogwa says:

    wanaharakati jabaya bugogwa is to ensure the rights of women, young people and children to live free from violence and HIV/AIDS through community mobilization, public awareness and capacity strengthening.

  28. Femi Ajiboye says:

    Why is NIGERIA,not included among the listed participating countries?
    Thanks,and i hope your noble organisation will find a solution to this,this is the time we need your utmost support for our dearest country.

  29. Tonny .B. says:

    I would like to know to which email or where should we send our concept note?

  30. Hamisi Omari says:

    Tanzania Community Development Initiative and Research Organization is a new NGO intended to foster the efforts of alleviating poverty especially in rural Tanzania. Are we eligible for this grant?

  31. Collins Kotewas says:

    Writing from Kenya just to what should be done and how can we get the application forms or the application procedure and where should they be submitted.

  32. Erondu rogers Callistus says:

    Dear sir, i have an NGO that i want to establish in nigeria, the NGO name will be FOUNDATION FOR SKILLS EMPOWERMENT AND SUSTAINABLE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT CENTRE. The organisation vission is to promote the well-being of mankind in the grassroot. I have a great business idea that i can use to empower the youth in our society. I want to empower the youth on how to become employers of labour through skills acquisation. This NGO will create millions of job opportunity if it is well fund and manage. I have a dream and that dream is to establish an NGO that will enable the youth to become useful to the society. In the centre i will tutor many moral way of living and adding value to the society at large. Sir i will need a fund to start up the NGO in the grassroot. I want to establish a mega beauty centre in nigeria were i will train alot of unemployed youth on how to become an employer of labour to the labour market. Also in this centre i will also enlighten the youth on how to shun violence,immoral act that can destroy their future, the implications of having unprotected sex and the importance of abstainning. The centre will work very versatile to achieve the world set objective on development goals. Sir i will be very greatful if this little proposal of mine is given a consideration recommendation. I look foreward to your wormly response. Thanks Erondu Rogers Callistus.

  33. anjum raza mattu says:

    Insan Dost Association(IDA) is working against bonded child labour system especially for the rehabilitation of bonded brick kiln workers since 1986. in Pakistan 4million people including 1.9 children are engaged with brick kiln industries and spending their lives with out basic needs such as basic education, proper food, health and notify wages. although they work hard from day to night with their children and women in extreme weather but they remain bond and poor due to the lake of information about their rights and debt system. IDA can apply for rehabilitation of bonded kiln workers from Pakistan.
    Anjum Raza Mattu

    director IDA Pakistan

  34. tedvan Nabora says:

    Faru arts and sports development organization is helping community in arts and sports with the aim of fighting against poverty, HIV/AIDS and drugs abuse.To be connected with you is our step forward for help the community.We save almost ninety youths in different groups dancers,singers,film artist, football team,computer class and tradition dancing. the organization is growing day after day but the difficult is fund.
    we are from Tanzania how can we apply fund in such activities we do?

  35. Adow Mohamed says:

    Dear Sir/Madam
    Can a newly formed NGO assisting Marginalized communities in Kenya eligible for this grants, Kindly let me know am very much in need of these grant because the community am providing the assistance needs greater aid and help to be provided for since they are marginalized in all sectors of developments e.g. health, education, agriculture e.t.c.

  36. Abual Hossain says:

    Would you please clarify the local NGOs?

    Are not the NGOs of Bangladesh entitled to apply? If yes, please send us the application format.

  37. why not Gambia says:

    we are dealing with people living with HIV and they are in need of such help

  38. James Batilo Nyamawa says:

    Dear Sir / Madam,
    I head an organization that takes care of women, children, youths and abandon communities.Rescure Mission For the Maginalized (ReMM) we are really doing our best but no funding. Can NGOS from Sierra Leone apply for this funding?.
    Thanks for your help to us.
    James B. Nyamawa

  39. Boro Ilic says:

    Could You please tell me where to send this application, i.e. concept note. What is the address? Is it this one in Washington, or do we send it to some office in the country we are applying from?

    Thank you


    please i would like to find out how you could be of help to NGOs who are into disability advocacy.


  41. Ngong Velma Neng-BERUDA Cameroon says:

    Cameroon as well as most West African countries is not mentioned on the list. Is it the result of a random selection or is she not eligible?

  42. ABC-Development says:

    thanks for the good work done in fighting poverty and ending poverty.

  43. Oyedeji Olufemi says:

    Thanks to USAID for all her efforts at providing funding to enhance the quality of life of poor people around the world. I observed that Nigeria is not listed among countries to benefit from the grant advertised by USAID. I wolud like USAID to consider Nigeria in her future plan. Thanks to everyone at USAID

  44. Phoree D. Lawor says:

    Liberia is not on the beneficiary countries for the USAID Fund for local NGO. Are there particular reasons for this? I want to know.

  45. Mahamoud J.Aden says:

    My name is Mahamoud Jama Aden. I am Representing Local umbrella organization based in Somalia/Somaliland called united Trust Associations(UNITA) that has membership of more than 15 women and youth local individual organizations.

    This is very important for Grant opportunity “Development Grant Program” and I hope it will be very helpful for selected communities.
    However, most of the East African countries include the above, but Somalia is not in the List .Is the mean Somalia is not illegible for this Grant.

  46. Sylvanus A. Ayeni, M.D. says:

    West African countries are conspicuously absent. Is there a reason for this prominent omission?

  47. Mildred Maduekwe says:

    i did not see Nigeria on the list,i would love to know why and if there is gong to be another list coming up soon at least before the deadline.

  48. Erick Omondi Okoth says:

    Thanks for the call for proposal , I only want to know if USAID Supported community based organizations in Kenya can also apply for the funding.
    Erick Omondi
    Programe Director
    Blue cross Nyatike

  49. Mbaju Jackson says:

    QN.Can newly registered local NGOs providing legal aid services to indigent persons apply and then, what contains capacity development services.

  50. bharti singh chauhan says:

    we are an ngo based at Rajasthan working for child Welfare,WOmen Empowernment & Rural Devpt. Kindly guide us to link with projects accross

  51. Ladu Joseph Wuya says:

    Let me know whether south sudan will be included in the list

    Ladu Joseph Wuya
    Juba South Sudan

  52. Charles Kereau says:

    A lot of the countries under this call are from the African continent. Why don’t you include Pacific Islands countries?.

  53. Maserole Annah Kgomo says:

    I am so delighted to recieve your calls for proposals. I have a great challenge. I am a South African former graduate teacher. There ar a lot of challenges in Educational system regarding rural ,underprivillaged children as far as better Education is concerned. We have private schools and public schools. The under privillaged cannot affort fees, and better Educational facilities offered by Private schools, therefore ,only children from economically advanced families, have access to such.

    I am in need of financial assistance to establish such educational facility for the underprivillaged.

    May I please get help?

    Ms M A Kgomo in SOUTH AFRICA.

  54. Foundation for community sustainability. says:

    Foundation for community sustainability is a Local Non-Governmental organization in Sierra Leone, West Africa. Is our country eligible to apply? Please respond as we want to put our concept note together for submission.

    Thanks in Advance,
    Ben Massaquoi – Programe Manager.

  55. Ahmed Omar says:


    SAHAN is a Local organization Registered Somaliland, also somalia/ Somaliland is not include the list, at the same time you know the situation of Somaliland how the civil society response the community povery and development of the country.

    SAHAN is support the People living with HIV/AIDS in this country also the other LNGO’s Somaliland is difference the other parts of the world so why we can get the benefit of this grant??????.


    Ahmed Omar
    Program Manager

  56. Azuruku Henry says:

    Are local NGOs in South Sudan eligible for this call for proposal?

  57. Thank you. Ghana is not mentioned in the list provided. Can NGO’s in Ghana apply ?

    I am writing on behalf of Children Safeguarding Affairs Foundation (C-SAF). C-SAF is an NGO in Ghana seeking support to combat child abuse in its holistic definition. Unicef declared in April 2013 that child abuse in Ghana is getting worse, and this is evident in some of the high profile media child abuse cases in Ghana. C-SAF would like to be given the opportunity to submit a proposal for funding.
    Hoping to hear from you soon.
    Thank you

  58. Pastor Nibizi Jean-Marie Burundi says:

    I lead an organization called SHINE in Burundi. We are involved in peace, reconciliation, trauma and poverty alleviation through social community enterprises putting together former communities in rivarlies, conflicts, war. I have 2 questions on this call for proposals:
    1. What means “Provision of capacity development services for local and regional partners of USAID”
    2. Is this call for only partners of USAID or any organizations can apply.


  59. Tenson Simwayi says:

    I have noted on the list of countries that Malawi is not amongst. But it is one of the poorest countries in Africa and the world as a whole. There are more problems that require intervention to improve the living standards of the people. Our Local NGO is Participatory Development Initiatives (PDI), actively involved in water supply (through both gravity Fed System and boreholes), Sanitation,and Hygiene Education to the poor and vulnerable people and School Sanitation. Therefore can`t our country be considered and benefit through our Local NGO?
    I will be enthusiastically waiting for a response. Thanks.


    • Malawi is listed with the other African countries. Look under Burundi and you will see it there.

  60. Cape of Goodhope says:

    We are a local NGO in Uganda working with orphans ad vulnerable children and we have our own land and we need some support to improve on our service delivery. We want to take up the girl education challenge by providing education for about one hundred fifty rural girls who face a number challenges between home and school, but our approach is to care of them at the center. For the beginning we have a primary school with permanent buildings we just need a hostel for their accommodation.
    How can we access assistance, grants or volunteers and put up the structures?

  61. ASRAFUL HASSAN says:

    our ngo-GORACHAND SEBA SAMITY basicaly worked at rural area & urban slum area in west bengal, INDIA. providing support verious type of community bass activities. please advice me on funding opportuinty and give us details of project proposul.

  62. Ocean is a NGO working in Pakistan and in Afghanistan in areas of strengthening civil societies, Environmental issues, Species conservation, mass awareness on conservation of fragile ecosystem and Disaster management. we are looking for some funding opportunities.


  63. Pls. mention if there is some opportunity for NGOs/ civil societies working in Pakistan.



  64. Terna Ortese says:

    Nigeria is not part on the list so i don’t see how my ngo can benefit.

  65. Is there a reason why Timor-Leste and Papua New Guinea are not included in this list of countries? Are there other grants that may be available for programs in these countries?

  66. Roma and Ashkalia Documentation Center says:

    I would like to ask you about Kosovo, since in the list of countries is not listed, can we apply. Since the civil society in Kosovo needs assistance in order to implement the activities and especially for the three most vulnerable groups living in Kosovo.
    Please let me know can civil society in Kosovo can apply.


  67. Is Nigeria deliberately not listed for some reason? Or is it part of a larger group? thanks


    hi USAID,
    aniger is new community based ngo, providing support to school drop outs in ghana. . please advice me on funding opportuinty

  69. Ssenyonga Richard says:

    Capital for life is a Ugandan registered CBO,operating in Nagojje Sub County with an office in Mukono District, Bungoma Uganda.

    Please can you send us your guidelines to enable us write our concept notes..

    Cheers,Richard Ssenyonag,Coordinator, Office phone +256-414-667715.

  70. satyashri says:

    Kindly let me know whether India can be included.

  71. Martin Mwanangwa Munkhondya says:

    Kindly let me know whether Malawi can be included.

    • Rebecca lowoiya says:

      Hi USAID ,ilead an registered org from north rift women for peace buillding in Kenya,kindly we would like to know if we can be assisted by USAID to able us to fercilitate peace -building in these region which is facing intercommunities conflict since time-in memorial we come from six counties .and we have our member in each county from grassroot to national the contact person ,for any reply please cantact .Rebecca lowoiya phone no-0722691355


    Dear Sir/Madam,

    Wamulu International is a Kenyan registered NGO,operating in western province with any office in Bungoma South District, Bungoma County.

    Please send us your guidelines to enable us write to you our concept notes for your review,then we shall write to you our detailed project proposal for your review and action.

    Best regards,Rev.Robert Wafula,C.E.O,Cellphone +254 720 931 793.

  73. can a new NGO that works with children on education apply for this grant?

  74. Muhammad Zahid says:

    Can we apply for grants from Pakistan while working on gross root level Thanks

  75. CIDI-Community Integrated Development Initiatives says:

    Gd morning USAID team,
    CIDI is interested to partner with you for this course that is strengthening capacity of local NGOs and grass root organizations.However,you talked about regional partnership for example Easter Africa partnership where Uganda falls.How do we go about with developing concept notes based on this notion.Do we come up with independent concept notes or we develop concept notes jointly-Consortium?.

    Please through us more light on this matter.We look forward to a more fruitful partnership with you-USAID.

    Yours in service.


      H I CIDI. we would like to if you are funding peace org,if so please send us any detail or application form.we are a registered org for peace building in northern Kenya,for any information please contact ,Rebecca lowoiya

  76. GISIK Imran says:

    Countries of Asia, especially South Asia are seen nowhere in the list, although there is great need for strengthening local NGOs and CBOs for sustainable development.

    GISIK Imran.

  77. Ben Orutemeka says:

    I am the facilitator of a newly established mediation centre in Ogu, Rivers State, Nigeria that is a community based, non-profit and independent. How do I apply for this USAID fund for NGOs? Please direct appropriately. BEN

  78. Alfred k. karanja says:

    kindly advice me whether you fund Community Based organisations.

  79. Good day sir/madam u may please email me the application form of funding,we are an ngo.

    Kind regards

  80. okoth kennedy says:

    Thanx, on behalf of Uganda slum dwellers we hereby do call upon financial assistance.We are faced by many challenges on areas of advocacy,water and sanitation,lack of shelter,unemployment,information dissemination etcetra which affect both men and women.

  81. Sithole Petros says:

    YOUTH EMPOWERMENT SATELITE ORGANISATION(YESO) is PVO reg 23/12 dealing with a variety actvities in youths epowerment in Zimbabwe Masvingo province in Bikita District and wish the youths of Bikita over 1 0 000 registered to benefit from this good grant.Executive Director

  82. Aladejare Abimbola says:

    Is Nigeria not included in this funding opportunity?

  83. Gladys Kaweesa says:

    Iam trying to find out how to partner with Usaid. Please let me know the requirements or Qualifications.
    Iam a Ugandan and Director of an NGO Currently. Youth Concerns

    thanks and regards
    Gladys nambi Kaweesa
    Female – Ugandan

  84. Shailendra Pokharel says:

    Greeting from Nepal. I am Shailendra Pokharel writing this mail on behalf of Conservation Development Foundation (CODEFUND), Nepal. This institution is recently evolved out and looking fund for conservation development in Nepal which intends to make sustainable change at one administrative development unit of government of Nepal that has strategies to strengthen local governance, knowledge and socio-economy by focusing on environment with special focus of water issues. CODEFUND has been established after technical presentation to over 1500 scientists, conservationists and development personnel in and beyond Nepal. It has 101 founders who’ve provided input of approx US $300 each as collective input.

    We understand that USAID has been assisting Nepal’s government for different development issues. In addition, we’re looking for USAID support in Nepal through civil society organization to improve livelihoods of local communities and environment demonstrated and replicated gradually. Pls kindly suggest us how to receive USAID grants.

    We look forward to hearing soon.

    Thank you very much and with sincere regards.

  85. KINGSLEY says:

    To find out if NGOs from Nigeria can also apply ?

  86. Emmanuel says:

    Why are countries like Nigeria and Ghana not included in the country of focus?

  87. Md.Shariful Islam says:

    The name of our organization is Chhinnamukul Bangladesh. I wants to know how to raised fund for our organization. We know the funds for NGOs help raise for funds. So we wants to help for funds.
    You are help us for raise for funds.
    Thanks @ Regards

    Md. Shariful Islam
    Chief Executive
    Chhinnamukul Bangladesh

  88. Nasir Ali says:

    I went through the contents, however; I could not see Pakistan in the list. Actually I have designed a proposal on ‘Improving the Performance of Institutions’ and wish to implement it across the Country. I am sure it will definitely benefit both sides of governance.

    • Shifu Ngalla says:

      I would have loved that, Cameroon be included on the list of beneficiary countries of this grant. Our NGO, Change Communications, uses communication to change mindsets for development particularly in rural communities of the country. At the time of my writing this comment, we are in the small old southern Cameroonian town of Mbalamayo where we are training 30 rural community radio journalists from 15 radio stations on how to use radio to promote democratic values and practices through interactive programs. This brings the total to 200 trained across the country since the month of May 2013 with funding from the United Nations Democracy Fund (UNDEF) in New York.
      We would have equally loved to train rural community radio broadcasters specifically those in the tropical forest areas of Cameroon where national and international logging and mining companies are exploiting resources without the local population being aware of what is happening around, let alone benefiting directly or indirectly from from such exploitation. We would want to train about 100 rural radio journalists on how to get information, process it, and produce programs that will enable the rural communities know what is happening and the stakes involved for them. We even would like to set up communication strategies to ensure sustainable information surveillance by the local people of those activities.

      Shifu Ngalla in Ebolowa Cameroon